Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
A bipolar transistor is an Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) designed to have a fast electrical response, which makes it ideally suited for fast-changing conditions. An insulated-gate bipolar transistor is a three terminals, power semiconductor device and mainly used as a contactor, which, when developed, came up with the ability to combine high speed and low cost switching. It is made of two layers, namely, metal and oxide surfaces, that are linked via a gate. Insulated gate bipolar transistors have four pins which can be reversed to achieve a one-step change in the input voltage.
This type of input transistor has several advantages over the conventional pNP or NPN type. The first is its fast speed; with the increased speed of the bipolar input transistor, greater range of voltage current is obtained even in smaller sizes of the input transistor. In addition, with a fast turning speed, this input transistor can operate even at room temperature; unlike the low temperature operation of the NPN type of transistor in high current applications. Insulated gate bipolar transistors are also able to tolerate thermal shock, with even a very low temperature reaching below freezing temperature without any change in the device performance.
Insulated gate bipolar transistors are also highly efficient when it comes to switching power requirements. As a matter of fact, they provide up to 40% more power than conventional pNPs, with a high efficiency rating. Insulated IGBTs also feature a high input and output resistance, making them useful for power IC applications where power needs are great. The device’s high input resistance is due to its use of a solid insulator, which limits the input current to a trickle and allows only small currents to flow through the collector.
An insulated gate bipolar transistor has three terminals: the input, which correspond to the ground, and the output, which are connected to an electric source and the load. The input and the load terminals form a quandary with the third terminal positioned in a means that it will draw a current when the two other terminals are in an “on” position. When the two terminals are in an “off” position, the device will operate with no input and therefore no output. This is a typical circuit design made using an IGBT; as a result, the light’s output power level can be changed to the desired level with the flip of one of the terminals.
A typical application of the light is found in the microchip industry, where its use makes power ICs and PICs operate more effectively. One popular use in the microchip industry involves the use of the igbt in high switching speed bipolar transistors. In this case, the input current to the PIC is relatively low, but it will still need a large amount of power when the output current is very high; therefore, the high switching speed characteristic of the pico transistor is employed.
One of the benefits of the igbt is the use of a so-called on-state resistance, which means the current flowing through the device will always remain at a particular level. However, switching frequencies may get extremely high on some devices, resulting in the generation of a lot of heat which may burn the semiconductor devices inside. As a result, an additional current is required to prevent the semiconductor devices from getting damaged. To avoid this, the current is switched off at the input side of the device, while supplying power to the input terminal at the output side. Although the igbt is not particularly suited to high switching speeds, its operation in this case reduces heat generation and extends the life of the device by preventing damage to the semiconductor devices.